MEASURING HOW TEACHERS MATTER

Compared to any other aspect of schooling, teachers have the greatest impact on student achievement. A well-trained teacher is likely to send more students to college, and can boost a class’s lifetime income by $250,000.

與學校教育的其他方面相比,老師對於學生的成就影響很大。一個受過良好訓練的教師更有可能讓更多的學生進大學,並將班級的終身收入提高250,000美元。

Test scores “capture only a fraction” of what teachers are capable of, according to Jackson, who points out that teachers play an important role in the overall well-being of students—though that may not be immediately observable. A 2015 study found that promoting students’ social and emotional well-being resulted in significant long-term economic gains—a return of $11 for every $1 invested—largely from better outcomes in students’ long-term health, education, and employment, and a decreased likelihood of juvenile and adult crime.

根據傑克遜的說法,考試成績“僅佔教師能力的一小部分”,並指出老師其實在學生整體福祉中扮演很重要的角色,即使這部分很難被觀察到。在一個2015年的研究中,發現提升學生社交和情緒控管能力,會對長期經濟收益產生重大的影響(每1美金的投資將會得到11美金的投資報酬),而這主要來自於學生在健康、教育以及就業的結果下有較好的結果,以及青少年和成人犯罪的可能性降低。

Not every skill needed in adulthood is well captured by performance on achievement tests,” Jackson writes. If we measure the value of a teacher simply by how much they raise test scores, we may lose sight of the bigger picture.

「並不是每一項未來所需的技能都能好好地透過成績表現被測量而知。」傑克遜寫到,「如果我們僅根據學生成績程度的提高來評估老師價值的話,我們就有可能會忽視大局

THE SCIENCE OF LEARNING

New research in the fields of neuroscience and psychology helps explain why improving non-cognitive skills has long-term benefits.

透過神經科學以及心理學領域的一些新研究,可以幫助解釋為什麼提升學生非認知能力,對於未來有著長遠的效益。

The science says to us that, in fact, the way the brain functions and grows, it needs safety, it needs warmth, it actually even needs hugs,” Stanford professor Linda Darling-Hammond said in a recent interview. “We actually learn in a state of positive emotion much more effectively than we can learn in a state of negative emotion. That has huge implications for what we do in schools.”

「事實上,科學要所告訴我們的是大腦如何運作以及成長,它需要安全,需要溫暖,甚至是需要擁抱。」史丹佛教授,琳達・達林・哈蒙德在最近的訪談中提到「老實說,比起在負面情緒,我們在積極情緒的狀態下更能有效的學習。這大大的影響了教育者在學校所做的工作。」

In 2017, when we asked our readers to describe the traits of a life-changing teacher, very few of the responses were about test scores or academics. People overwhelmingly said that great teachers make their students feel safe and loved, believe in their students, model patience, and help their students reach their full potential—all qualities that remain largely unmeasured.And students’ long-term success is often less about academics than behavior. Research shows that when students drop out of high school, it’s usually for disciplinary reasons or factors such as financial issues or family needs.

我們在2017年時,請許多讀者敘述,對於他們來說,一個可以改變生活的老師應該具備什麼樣的特質?而僅有很少的回覆是跟成績以及學科相關。大部份地回應是,一個好的老師應該要讓學生感到安全以及是被愛的,相信自己的學生,建立耐心,並幫助孩子探索並充分地發揮自己的潛力。可以發現,所有的特質是很難被大程度測量的。讓學生取得成功的,往往不是學術成績,而是行為舉止。研究表明,學生會發生輟學行為,原因通常都會跟紀律有相關,像是財務問題或是家中需求等因素。

Even when students drop out for academic reasons, it’s often due to a lack of engagement.So the best way to keep students in school isn’t necessarily to help them improve their test scores—helping them feel like they belong may have a bigger impact.

即使學生因為學業的關係而輟學,也常是因為缺乏參與的關係。因此最能幫助學生的方法,絕對不是幫助他們提高考試成績,而是讓他們知道自己未來能產生多大的影響力。

The takeaway:

Measuring the full value of a teacher goes well beyond their impact on test scores.Teachers who improve students’ non-cognitive skills also improve long-term outcomes that include their odds of graduating from high school.

文章重點整理:

教師的價值遠遠超過他們對於考試成績的影響。這些幫助學生獲得非認知能力技能的老師,也同時改進他們長期的結果,這其中包含了可以從高中畢業的機率。

文章來源-understanding teachers long term impact/Edutopia

看更多– 【教育文章翻譯】understanding-a-teachers-long-term-impact(上)

 

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